From the last chapter, Paul had entered Jerusalem only to face a crowd that demands him to be arrested and put to death. After the tribune granted him permission to speak, Paul addressed the people in the Hebrew language.
Paul says that he's a Jew, brought up in this city, and well-educated in the strict laws. He used to persecute Christians, until the time when he was on his way to Damascus, a blinding light shone on him and Jesus spoke to him. After receiving his sight again, he devoted himself to proclaiming Jesus's name.
He then received a vision from the Lord to leave Jerusalem for they will not receive his testimony. The Lord sent him far away to the Gentiles.
After hearing this, the people raised their voices and declared that he should not be allowed to live. The tribune brought him into the barracks and was about to flog him, but learned that Paul is actually a Roman citizen, and became afraid. The tribune then brought Paul before the chief priests and the council to learn the reason why the Jews accused Paul.
Paul's Own People Are Unbelievers
It didn't matter to the people that Paul was a Jew–not just any Jew, but a well-educated one in accordance with the strict laws of their ancestors.
To them, Paul was simply inconvenient. The Jews (especially the ones in power) opposed the Christians because they don't want Christ to be greater than Moses and Abraham. The won't be able to namedrop Moses and Abraham when they want their way.
It's like the kid who tells on the teacher in order to get their way. The Jews in power simply tell on Moses and Abraham to get their way. How dare you defile the name of Moses and Abraham?
Having one of their own like Paul–a Jew decorated with high honors across the board–proclaim Christ is the worst-case scenario. He must be punished.
Interestingly enough, Roman citizenship saves Paul from a beating and worse. Back in the day, the Roman empire dominated the world. Today, that would translate to the USA, which currently dominates the world.
While his Jewish background couldn't save him, ironically his Roman citizenship did. For now.
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